Firstly, it needs to be explained that there are four different RADAR bands (frequencies) used throughout the world plus LASER (which is completely different to radar).
The four radar bands include:
X-Band (10.275GHz up to 10.775GHz) - not used anywhere in Australia
K-Band (24.050GHz up to 24.250GHz)
Ka-Band (33.400GHz up to 36.000GHz)
Ku-Band (13.175GHz to 13.675GHz) - not used anywhere in Australia
Radar (short for radio and ranging) works by transmitting a pulse of electromagnetic (EM) energy, also referred to as RF energy at a moving object. Using the Doppler principle the radar gun ‘listens’ to the change in pitch of the radio waves as they reflect off the moving vehicle and thus determines the speed. Similarly, when a train blows its whistle as it passes you – you can hear the change in pitch of the whistle, as the train moves past.
The radar beam starts out as a small diameter pulse when it leaves the radar gun, but grows quite rapidly as the distance increases from the gun. At a distance of 300 metres, the radar beam is now 100 metres tall and 200 metres wide! If 6 cars were simultaneously hit by a radar beam (six vehicles driving down the freeway), 6 pulses would come back to the radar gun, and the radar gun would detect (and report the speed of) the largest signal of the 6 signals present. To overcome this shortfall, the latest radar units with Digital Signal Processing (DSP) can identify the strongest and the fastest targets to try and help the police officer identify which vehicle's speed is being displayed on the radar gun.
Because the radar beam is so large when traveling down the road, a radar detector can be located almost anywhere in or on the vehicle, and it will detect the radar signal. Radar will penetrate glass, plastic, even people, but is reflected by metal and metallic objects. Radio waves will only travel in a straight line, so you are relying on reflections of other objects to give you advanced warning if you do not have a line of sight with the radar gun.
Traffic radar uses a radar beam to measure speed. Think of the beam as a searchlight. It’s invisible because it’s made of microwaves instead of light, but otherwise it acts very much like a light beam. It travels in straight lines. It’s easily reflected. It scatters as it is passed through dust and moisture in the air. And — this is essential — it has to hit your car before it can determine your speed. Radar can’t see around corners or through hills. It can’t see you when you are behind another vehicle. When in the clear, how strongly your vehicle reflects determines at what distance the radar can detect your speed. Generally, larger vehicles reflect more strongly than smaller vehicles. Trucks are more “visible” at further distances than cars. The principle on which radar operates is absolutely reliable. Radar equipment, on the other hand, is only as good as the quality of its design and manufacture. Traffic radars tend to be unreliable. They’re cheaply made and therefore vulnerable to many interferences that cause false readings. And, compared to the military and weather radar which have rotating antennas, traffic radars are vastly simplified. This simplification means that traffic radar cannot tell one car from another. The operator has to do that, and since the operator can’t see an invisible beam any better than you can, he frequently doesn’t know which vehicle’s speed is being read. This is a source of many undeserved tickets.
As a defense against radar detectors, many police radar units can be operated in the Instant-on mode, also called the Pulse mode. This means the radar is in position, but it is not transmitting a beam. So it cannot be detected. When the target is within range, the radar operator switches on the beam and the radar calculates the speed, usually in less than a second. This calculation happens too quickly for the target (you) to respond in time. Still, you can defend against Instant-on by recognizing it when the operator zaps traffic ahead of you.
As well as radar, there is also LASER (also known as LIDAR, - LIght Detection And Ranging), which operates at a frequency of 904nm ‡ 33MHz. A police laser (LIDAR) gun emits a highly focused beam of invisible light, in the near infrared region of light, at 904nm of wavelength, with the beam being around 50cm in diameter at a distance of 300m from the laser gun. Unlike RADAR which determines a vehicle's speed by measuring its Doppler shift, police laser (lidar) calculates speed by observing the changing amount of time is takes to "see" reflected pulses of light over a discreet amount of time.
Because the laser beam's diameter is so narrow, if a laser gun is aimed at the license plate, the beam is so small, that most times, none of the laser signal would actually “spill over” up to the windshield, where your detector is mounted. Thus, a radar detector with laser detector mounted on the windscreen would not even detect the laser beam targeted on the license plate (or headlights or bumper for that matter). This means the beam of a laser gun is accurate enough to target a single vehicle out of, let’s say, six vehicles driving down the freeway. The laser gun can target and detect that single vehicle in less than ½ second after the trigger is pulled, while the surrounding vehicles would not detect the laser beam as it passed right beside their vehicle!
Other than radar and laser, there are other ways of calculating a vehicle's speed being:
In Queensland, the police use the following speed measurement devices:
Dash Mounted radar (aka moving radar) set up in police cars:
The KR10-SP manufactured by Kustom Signals Inc in the USA was the first dash mounted K-band radars used in QLD police cars. The KR10 can be used in stationary and moving mode, and can be used in "instant on" mode or "constant on" mode. One antenna for front only or two antennas for front / rear can be used.
QLD is the only state to retain the Genesis Select II Ka-band dash mounted radar after it was withdrawn from use in WA and NSW. It is manufactured in the US by Decatur Electronics Inc, with the "Australian version" being 35.1GHz (US version is 35.5GHz). There has been numerous news stories challenging the reliability of the Decatur Genesis (Ka-band) radar, however a huge court battle has finished in late 2006 which give victory to the radar company.
Reports have also surfaced that the QLD police are also using the Stalker DSR2 in car radar system. The Stalker radar (operating on 34.7GHz) is one of the most advanced police radar systems in the world able to display both the strongest and fastest targets simultaneously. This enables the Stalker to monitor faster vehicles passing larger vehicles and display the speed of both targets simultaneously. While stationary, the police car can monitor traffic in both directions, front and behind simultaneously. If the police car is moving, it can monitor traffic in one direction, but still front and back simultaneously.
Hand-held laser (aka lidar):
The QLD police, like many Australian states, use the LTI Ultralyte 100LR speed laser (lidar) gun. The LTI Ultralyte 100 LR used in Australia is the 100pps (pulses per second) model displaying speed and distance in km/h and km respectively. The LTI Ultralyte 100LR operates at a frequency of 904nm, and as per all speed lidar guns, has an extremely narrow divergence of the radar beam, as well as able to acquire a vehicle's speed in less than one second.
Mobile Speed Cameras:
cameras began operating in QLD since May 1997. Queensland use the mobile Gatso
radar 24 speed camera which, like in Victoria, are set up in a vehicle
as shown to the left. The Gatso speed cameras
operate on low powered K-band radar at 24.125GHz and
will only give a couple of hundred meters warning to the
best radar detectors. Gatsometer is a Dutch company that
provides many types of speed and red light cameras.
Watch a flash demo of a Gasto speed camera in action. More info on QLD's traffic infringements. Queensland
will trial fixed speed cameras by the end of the 2007.
"We're expecting to have a trial by the end of the year,"
says Transport Minister Paul Lucas. "We'll be
looking to put them
Fixed Red Light / Speed Cameras:
The Red Light cameras in are supplied by Redflex, and Gatso (the RLC 36M-MC), first introduced in Queensland in December 1990. The systems capture two successive 'scene' images. The first image records an infringing vehicle that is just about to enter the intersection during the red signal phase and shows the 'red' traffic signal phase. The second image provides photographic evidence that the vehicle continued into the intersection illegally. The systems then 'find' and 'zoom' the license plate area to give crisp, high-resolution, pixelation-free, license plate images that are easily read to maximize successful prosecutions.
The assumption being made here, is that the speed measuring equipment is being used according to the manufacturer's guidelines (see below).
Contrary to what the government or police would have you believe, the accuracy of these "speed measuring devices" can be somewhat doubtful, particularly if the manufacturer's guidelines for use are not strictly followed. Police officers, and mobile speed camera operators are trained in the proper use of these devices, but that isn't to say these guidelines are always followed. It is estimated that 10% of all LIDAR infringements are incorrect and up to 30% of all moving radar speed readings are also incorrect!
The Australian standards AS 2898.2-2003:
"Radar speed detection - Operational procedures" - can be purchased HERE
The Australian standards AS 4691.2-2003:
"Laser-based speed detection devices - Operational procedures"
- can be purchased HERE
What does all this mean? It means that there are requirements for the correct placement and setup of speed camera devices as well as guidelines for the use of radar devices. Rules that must be followed for setup, placement and testing! But are they?
The Texas Department of Public Safety produced a comprehensive manual based on the Federal tests. It cautions operators, "...the radar does not generate 'false' readings. Anytime a reading appears, the radar has sensed a signal. The radar operator must be familiar with situations that can produce 'error' readings." If the operator does not detect the error, a ticket will be wrongfully issued.
Here are the radar "errors" detailed by the Texas manual:
1. Antenna Positioning Error
2. Look-Past Error
Texas instructors warn, "It is a widely-held misconception that the reflected target signal received by the radar antenna will always be that of the closest vehicle to the antenna. There are times, due to traffic conditions, that the closest vehicle is not returning the strongest signal."
The Texas instructors confirm this problem with radar, saying "It is not unfair to say that the reading you register could be a larger, better target three-quarters of a mile down the road."
3. Vehicle Interference Error
Texas tells its radar operators that this "...situation becomes more critical if difference in patrol speed and interference-vehicle speed is five to ten mph. A target vehicle moving 61 mph may be recorded at 66-71. These borderline speeds are more difficult to detect with the eye."
4. Cosine Error
If this reflector were positioned straight ahead on a collision path, the patrol speed estimate would be close enough. But the further the object is located off a direct line to the target, the lower will be the estimate of patrol speed. This is a simple trigonometry problem relating to the cosine of the angle between the target and the ground reflector, hence the name Cosine error. Since Cosine error always makes patrol speed seem smaller than it actually is, it always acts to raise the reading of target speed.
5. Double-Bounce Error
6. Beam-Reflection error
7. Road-sign error
8. Radio-Interference Error
9. Fan-Interference error
However, in the case of moving radar, they say, "Sometimes a steady fan speed will override patrol car speed reflected from the roadway." When this happens, the false speed reading produced by the fan will be substituted for patrol speed in the moving radar's calculation of target speed. Since the calculation consists of subtracting patrol speed from closing speed, if the fan reading is less than patrol speed, then the speed displayed for the target will be incorrectly high.
Police LIDAR can also make errors if not operated according to the manufacturer's guidelines.
1. Stationary - Laser cannot be used in moving mode, they must be used whilst stationary. Similar to radar, laser cannot be used in the rain, snow, or high dust environments.
2. Interference - If for any reasons intended signal returns are interrupted, it may not be able to determine target velocity. Bright lights (such as Halogens) beaming directly into a laser aperture may desensitize or entirely masks target's echoes. The brighter and closer the light source the greater the chance of interference.
3. Cosine Error - Is the angle from 0* perpendicular to the target vehicle. The greater the cosine angle the greater the error. However, cosine error is always in favor of the motorist, one of the speed readings will be will be proportionally less than the actual speed of the target vehicle.
4. Sweep Error (also known as pan or slip error) - Is manifested when the laser is aimed at one part of the vehicle, say the license plate, and due to the motion of the operator, the laser also targets a side mirror during the same trigger pull. Sweep Error adds to the real speed of the target vehicle. See videos below.
5. Reflection Error - On very hot days with low humidity a visible mirage/reflection of the target vehicle is created. In many cases, when the laser is aimed at the target vehicle the infrared beam also receives readings from both the target vehicle and the mirage causing a Sweep Error.
6. Overexposure Error - When a laser gun receives an extremely powerful reflective signal, such as a sun flare off a vehicle, the computer's timer can't see return of the 904 nanometer signal it sent. It can't compute a speed reading. In general, the laser gun is looking for the strongest return reflection of its own emitted beam for speed computation.
LTI 20-20 exposed as unreliable (source)
Daily Mail, 15th October 2005.
Experts and two investigations by the BBC's Inside Out program and The Daily Mail have revealed that the police's favourite speed gun, the LTI 20-20, is flawed and can produce incorrect and unreliable speed readings. The device is used in some 3500 speed traps around the UK, but motorists have been prosecuted for speeding when they're adamant that they weren't over the limit. However, the main expert witness called by the CPS to defend the equipment in court is the boss of the UK importer, Frank Garratt, a former police officer and now a millionaire.
In tests the speed gun recorded a wall speeding at 44mph. (Yes, a brick wall, that's not a misprint) Other tests showed a bicycle doing 66mph and a parked car doing 22mph. The Daily Mail reports that even when the camera is set up following the police's own guidelines and the manufacturer's handbook some of the readings were wildly off the mark.
The newspaper wrote "The Mail can expose the scandal of a speed enforcement industry in which the collection of fines is considered paramount - whatever the consequences for innocent drivers caught in police traps by faulty readings." Lawyers told the paper that motorists are now rebelling by refusing to pay fines and fighting their cases through the courts. One solicitor, Barry Culshaw from Southampton, is representing 15 clients who all claim to have been a victim of faulty LTI 20-20 readings.
Another discovery, writes The Daily Mail, is that vital video film, often taken as secondary evidence, is often mysteriously withheld from accused motorists by the CPS. On at least 10 occasions the CPS has suddenly dropped the case against a motorist when ordered by a judge to hand over the revealing footage.
Dr Michael Clark is Europe's leading expert on laser technology and a former directory of a company making laser detection equipment for traffic lights and car parks. He's also a fierce critic of the speed gun and has acted as an expert witness on behalf of many motorists since he defended himself after being caught for alleged speeding.
Dr Clark says the gun is defective because its wide beam can easily pick up the wrong vehicle and if not held firmly on the target (which is a difficult task itself) it can produce an erroneous speed result because of "slippage".
Reflections from road signs and from other cars, even stationary ones, can also make the laser device misinterpret the true speed of the vehicle. The LTI 20-20 works by sending out a beam to measure the distance of the target from the officer operating it and also how long it takes for the beam to reflect off the target and bounce back. The operator looks through the sights and sees a red dot which he aims onto the target and presses a trigger. Critically the beam must be held firmly at the same point on the moving vehicle. But if slippage occurs and the beam moves up, down, or along the vehicle the gun will measure an inaccurate reading.
In tests in the USA, it was shown that if the beam slips from the windscreen of a car down to its grille on the bonnet it can add 8mph onto the vehicle's measured speed. If it slips along the length of the car - which is possible when a vehicle comes around a corner into the speed gun's sights - a whopping 30mph can be added on to the reading.
The BBC's experiments with the LTI 20-20 were dismissed by both the UK importers and ACPO (Association of Chief Police Officers) saying it was impossible for the gun to make any errors and that the BBC used an American version of the gun which they claim has less reliable software.
However, that claim was been rejected by the Daily Mail who obtained a UK version of the gun - a LTI 20-20 Ultralyte certified by Tele-Traffic, the UK importers based in Warwick.
Dr Clark points out during the experiments that the gun uses a multi-mode laser which uses 3 beams, not one. Over a long distance the beams widen so if it's targeted onto one vehicle it can unintentionally hit another vehicle nearby by mistake. Dr Clark said "A policeman can't tell from 400 meters away - or even at a longer distance in many cases - exactly which car he is marking." To demonstrate his point they parked a car at the side of the road and drove a white van past it at just 3mph. The laser gun was pointed at the car from 371 meters away which, according to the handbook, is easily within its capabilities.
As soon as the van drove past the parked car the laser gun picked up the moving van. It was impossible to target just the parked car along and as a result the car was recorded as travelling at 3mph, even though it was really stationary. The experiment was repeated with the van doing 26mph and the gun clocked the parked car at 26mph.
Another problem is reflection from other vehicles. They pointed the gun at a different parked car and slowly drove the white van past. It recorded the parked car doing 22mph. Dr Clark explains "The beam sometimes catches the reflection of a nearby car. It zig-zags to this car before carrying on to the target vehicle and returns by the same route."
In their final experiment they pointed the gun at a brick wall with no moving vehicles in the area. They moved the beam along the wall instead of keeping it perfectly still on a single point to create the slippage effect. The gun was confused and showed a speed of 44mph. Dr Clark said "This shows how a traffic officer can mistakenly pick up a reading from a wall by the side of a motorway or even an empty road if he doesn't target a vehicle properly. Of course there's no record to prove if an officer had targeting the vehicle properly or not. Assumption of accuracy is always taken for granted even if the officer had unwittingly made a mistake.
ACPO state that the gun shouldn't be used at distances more than 500 meters, but Dr Clark says that it's being used in some cases at double that distance.
Despite the recent media interest in these issue the shortcomings of the gun was discovered nearly a decade ago in 1996 in the US state of New Jersey. The state temporarily banned the gun after a court witnessed someone targeting the gun on a wall of the courtroom and it measured 4mph. The lawyer, Joe Maccarone, defending a motorist accused of speeding called on an expert from NASA. The expert said that at just over 300 metres there was only a 60% chance of a human operator hitting a 12 foot wide target with a laser gun. Cars are only 6 foot wide so the chances of hitting something other than the target are very high indeed.
Hand-held laser mistakes videos:
The police and the government would like to have us believe in their "utmost confidence in the accuracy of speed cameras". Of course they would, as a proven fault could cost them millions of dollars in repaid fines and loss of revenue, not to mention a loss of confidence. But how just accurate are the Queensland Gatso speed cameras? As the Gatso mobile speed cameras are set up similarly to the Multanova speed cameras in WA and SA, we shall compare the possible errors these cameras can make.
"As the police officer was not in a position to estimate accurately the speed of the vehicle with the naked eye and did not take meaningful notes, his evidence, apart from the evidence from the Multanova , was not sufficient to establish beyond a reasonable doubt that the motor vehicle owned by the defendant was speeding on the date in question.
Multinova readings are admissible if the surroundings reveal that the evidence is both accurate and enjoys circumstantial guarantees of trustworthiness. The circumstantial guarantees of trustworthiness were not supplied by the police officer's visual observations. The onus was on the crown to prove that the Multanova was capable of accurately measuring the speed of the defendant's vehicle, while it is not necessary for the Crown to establish through expert evidence how the particular speed detection device works scientifically, there must be relevant and appropriate evidence on the record from which the court can conclude that the device was functioning properly at the time of the alleged offence. The tests performed on the instrument to ensure its accuracy must be approved tests and these tests must satisfy the trier of fact that the instrument is capable of accurately measuring speed. Something other than simply turning the instrument on and relying on it to test itself is required. The fact (assuming that such a fact was established) that the "self-test" performed in this case is all that is required by the manufacturer does not mean that the test is an "approved test". The "self-test" was insufficient to satisfy the required circumstantial guarantees of trustworthiness." (source)
The speed camera situated in the South Lakeland area of Cumbria had been flashing motorists who were driving at or under the 40 MPH speed limit. The camera partnership responsible for operating the device had recognized the problem only after innocent motorists called to protest the unjust charges. The Cumbria Speed Camera Partnership now says it will not prosecute motorists for driving the speed limit and claims none have been wrongly ticketed.
"The flash on this type of camera is allowed to be set at a different speed to the speed of the penalty threshold," Cumbria Partnership Manager Steve Callaghan explained.
On March 1, 2006 the company RedSpeed International, Ltd. had certified that the device located on the A591 at Ings was 100 percent accurate. RedSpeed is not an independent testing laboratory without a financial stake in the results. Rather, according to the company's website, "Our main function is to market the RedSpeed range of traffic related equipment for traffic law enforcement."
Because of the open road layout and lack of serious hazards poor Ernie wrongly assumed that it was a 40 zone, so it would seem that at 38mph he thought that he was being a law abiding citizen. That stretch of road has no 30 mph speed limit signs. When Richard Bentley (an independent expert) was consulted, he agreed that that type of road would normally be a 40 zone. Ernie was given the prisoner number JH7915 and locked up with murderers and drug addicts for his crime against society.
Other comments came from Steve Walsh a former traffic cop who supplied evidence that some speed traps have monthly revenue targets that they have to attain. He also said that there is an imbalance between the way that a bad motorist is treated for dangerous driving who may kill or injure somebody and a normally conscienscous driver who strays over the speed limit in seemingly safe conditions. He did say that he supports speed cameras in the right areas. He also went on to say that some speeding convictions are based on spurious radar readings and that this is very common, especially when Rover 2000s, high sided vehicles or Transit vans with roller shutter doors are involved at the time a Gatso camera is activated. One speeding offence seemed to be over 400mph.
One individual interviewed had the title Captain Gatso and is a self styled Gatso vigilante, if he spots a Gatso camera in an area where he doesn't believe it is necessary and is there purely to collect revenue he may damage it in some way, and there are plenty of supporters in his efforts.
Quentin Wilson also spoke out against the inappropriate sighting of speed traps and commented that we haven't seen this sort of civil defiance since the Poll Tax (source)
Gatso's seem to have problems with trucks/high sided vehicles and will give an inaccurate speed reading - even if the truck is stationary! The police are meant to carefully revue all high sided vehicle NIP's before sending them out - so if you get a NIP and you were not speeding (or even moving!), request the photographs and this evidence should easily clear you. Also if you truck has a tacho. check it and if it proves you were not speeding then send them a copy. (source)
Engineer Proves Speed Camera Error In Court
Engineer Bryn Carlyon was issued a ticket by a traffic speed camera in Cardiff, UK. But he used multiple timed snaps by the camera, plus a little basic math, to PROVE IN COURT that he could not have been traveling at the speed on his citation. The case was dropped "due to insufficient evidence" and he received an apology from the Mid and South Wales Safety Camera Partnership, but Carlyon won't drop it himself. He's working to overturn the decision for the benefit of mankind: "I need the verdict to say that this was not dropped through lack of evidence -- it was dropped because it was a false prosecution," he told a local reporter. (source)
CAMERA GETS IT WRONG - by CLIFF MOGG
Simple! - "Don't speed" - I hear echo amongst the narrow minded. That's fine, and we agree whole heartedly, but "Don't speed and you won't have to pay a fine" assumes three very important things:
1) The speed limit is clearly indicated (Kwinana Freeway road works with two different posted speed limits on either side of the road ring a bell?)
2) Your car's speedometer is accurate.
3) The radar, laser or speed camera that measures your speed was accurate.
So what happens when you are driving down the road, sitting on 80km/h (according to your speedometer) in an 80km/h stretch of road, but you cop a speeding fine?
Dash Mounted radar (aka moving radar) set up in police cars:
The KR10-SP manufactured by Kustom Signals Inc in the USA was one of the first dash mounted radars used in QLD police cars. When transmitting in "constant on" you will be able to detect the long-range radar beam with any reasonable radar detector. Due to the laws governing the use of radar detectors in QLD, only the Bel STi is unable to be detected by the Stalcar RDD
The Genesis Select II dash mounted radar by Decatur Electronics operates on Ka-band. Many old X/K (only) band detectors were caught out when the police began using Ka-band radar as well. The Ka-band radar is not as easy to detect as X or K-band, but as above, you will be able to detect the radar with any good radar detector. Due to the laws governing the use of radar detectors in QLD, only the Bel STi is unable to be detected by the Stalcar RDD
At this point, some people have asked the question about radar jamming.
Your most important question
in purchasing a so-called radar jammer should be "does it work?"
Phantom, Phantom II, Phaser or Phazar, the Phantom III and The Black Widow.
Hand-held laser (aka lidar):
Laser guns are another "deadly" device in that they can calculate your speed in less than a second. Although most radar detectors include a laser sensor, they usually offer little more than a "ticket notifier" when they go off. Having said that, there ARE circumstances where a laser (detector) can and has, provided adequate warning...although these are few and far times in between. Click on the video below and to the left (allow pop-ups) to watch just how quickly a laser acquires a vehicle's speed.
"That being stated, these results suggest that, especially in close-range laser encounters, the Valentine 1 is the top performing laser detector, by a wide-margin, followed by the Escort 8500 X50 and more closely, the STi Driver, and the Beltronics RX65 Pro.."
But as aforementioned, just detecting the laser won't be enough. The most cost effective solution is with the use of Veil anti-laser paint. Veil will give you additional seconds warning time when used in conjunction with a good laser detector. You can read more about Veil in our laser jammers section.
The best defense against laser is by the use of an active laser jammer. Unlike most active radar jammers, active laser jammers do work. An active laser jammer will prevent a speed being displayed for a brief time whilst you adjust your speed if necessary. The best laser jammers for the Australian model LTI Ultralyte according to the Guys Of Lidar 2007 test are the Laser Interceptor and the Blinder. You need to look at the results for the Ultralyte 100pps as these are the laser guns used in Australia. The Laser Pro Park finished fifth in the test against these laser guns.
Mobile Speed Cameras:
Gatso mobile speed cameras in Qld operate on K-band and are always transmitting ("constant on"). For that reason, they are detected with reasonable ease with a decent radar detector. The best radar detector for picking up K-band radar is the Valentine One, but this detector is NOT invisible to police RDD. The only radar detector that is invisible to RDD is the Bel STi.
Fixed Red Light Cameras:
The best product for alerting to a fixed red light camera is a GPS device that stores these locations in a database. Many GPS manufacturers offer products that add this service (called "point of interest") to their navigation products. A GPS based device is perfectly legal to own and operate in Queensland at the time of writing.
Due to the laws banning the use of a radar detector in Queensland, we cannot recommend the purchase of any "speed evasion article". There are, however, drivers who choose to ignore these laws, and purchase a radar detector anyway. Those doing so, would most likely choose a stealth radar detector, as only stealth radar detectors are 100% invisible to the Stalcar police radar detector detector (see below)
225. (1) A person must not drive a vehicle if the vehicle has in or on it-
(a) a device for preventing the effective use of a speed measuring device; or
(b) a device for detecting the use of a speed measuring device.
Maximum penalty-40 penalty units.
225. (2) Subsection (1) applies to a device whether or not the device is operating or in working order.
There are two ways a police officer can tell if you are using a radar detector in your vehicle:
1) By visual detection
2) By detecting it electronically